Graham and Laird Factories

View in 2016, looking east, of the northeast corner of 19th and Hamilton Streets, showing the finishing touches being put on the townhomes fronting Baldwin Park and 19th Street. Hamilton Street ends at 19th Street.
Portion of a map from 1875 showing a rare empty lot in our neighborhood. Hartman Kuhn and family owned most of the half block between Hamilton and Buttonwood Streets. Hamilton Street is the east-west street at the bottom of this image.
Note also the land owned by future mayor William Reyburn at 19th and Spring garden Streets, as of 1875 without a mansion (see here). William Bement and his son had residences on Spring Garden Street as well, only three blocks from their large factory at 20th and Callowhill (see here).

As noted in the article on Hamilton Street (here), Andrew Hamilton had acquired land from the Penn family as payment for legal services. This estate, called Bush Hill, stretched from 12th to 19th Streets and from Vine to Fairmount Streets. The land passed through his son Andrew II, then other son James, then grandson William, then William's niece Ann, then Ann's daughter Ellen Lyle who married Hartman Kuhn. Kuhn (1784-1860) and his descendants owned much of the land that made up the former Bush Hill lands when the estate was eventually settled after William's death in 1813. As an aside, Hartman Kuhn was the son of Dr. Adam Kuhn (1741-1817), one of the founders of the College of Physicians whose name you can see carved on the wall in the lobby when you go visit the Mutter Museum. The doctor had married Elizabeth Hartman in 1780.

 

The 1875 map above shows the literal intersection of the Hamiltons, for whom Hamilton Street is named, and the Kuhns, reflecting the inheritance links between the two families.

Ann Hamilton was the daughter of Andrew Hamilton III (1743-1784), the brother of William Hamilton. She lived with William Hamilton until her marriage to James Lyle. In 1797 Ellen Lyle was born, who later would marry Hartman Kuhn.
This portrait had been in William's Woodland mansion from 1813 until the 1880's, when it was acquired by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (HSP). It is still there, but the HSP is looking to sell it after being displayed there for 140 years.

Philadelphia genealogy is difficult because pride in family makes for reuse of the same names throughout generations, as demonstrated within the Hamilton clan. The Kuhns followed the same path. To the east of the Hartman Kuhn parcel above, there is a small plot owned by Charles Kuhn (1821-1899), his son, and a larger plot owned by Mary Kuhn (1819-1886), his daughter. Mary Kuhn in 1842 married her cousin Hartman Kuhn, so the genealogy gets even more confusing thereafter. Suffice it to say that Mary's second son, Cornelius Hartman Kuhn, will be mentioned at the end of this article for sharing a distinction with Matthias Baldwin. By the way, Matthias Baldwin also married his distant cousin Sarah Baldwin.

In the mid-1800's, the biggest business in Philadelphia was not machine manufacturing, but textiles. The future Baldwin Park neighborhood was almost exclusively in the machinery business, but in 1885 John C. Graham built a five-story dress trimmings and upholstery factory and sales room on the southern half of the Hartman Kuhn lot. Graham had inherited the business from his father, and had been located on the 500 block of Cherry Street, but by 1885 required expansion. His sister was his partner, she predicting  the customer needs and fashion trends while her brother tended to the factory operations. The factory itself  covered 54 x 196 feet of ground and was built expressly for his textile business. 

Sketch of the Graham factory from 1886.
The ad is part of an aerial map of Philadelphia featuring sponsoring companies around the border. A facsimile is on wall display in the Social Science room in the Parkway branch of the Free Library.

In 1891 another building was added to the northern half of the Kuhn lot. The Laird, Schober, and Mitchell Shoe Factory was built with a similar design as the Graham factory, both factories achieving a unified appearance since they were designed by the same architect firm, Geisinger and Hale. Both were five stories, heavy timber framed, with brick cladding. 

Laird, Schober, and Mitchell had moved from a prior building near 12th and Arch Streets. According to the 1891 Philadelphia Statistics of Factories, Graham had 169 employees and Laird 550 employees.

Portion of map from 1888 showing the new trimming factory
Portion of 1895 map showing the addition of the Laird factory.
Times change.
Portion of a map from 1922 showing automobiles and electricity replacing shoes and trimmings. Note for later the extension of the Baldwin Locomotive Works to its maximum western extent, abutting the former Kuhn property. Baldwin Locomotive Works will be completely relocated to Eddystone by 1926.
View in 1966, looking east, from the corner of 20th and Hamilton Streets.
The joined factory buildings at the northeast corner of 19th and Hamilton Streets can be seen on the left in the distance. The fenced empty lot on the left will become the Hamilton Town Homes in 1976. In 1966 Hamilton Street continued only until 18th Street, when it encountered the Lit Brothers warehouse in the distance.
View in 1971, looking south down 19th Street from Spring Garden Street.
The hipped roof cupola atop the Laird factory stands out. 
Just south of the brick factories is the taller whitish I-T-E factory that occupies the northern half of the future Baldwin Park.

The Graham factory and the Laird factory buildings were added to the National Register of Historic Places as a unit in 1978. They were demolished shortly afterwards as part of the Franklin Town development project (see here).

As noted in the caption to the 1922 map above, Baldwin Locomotive Works occupied the land just south of the former Kuhn property. Matthias Baldwin and Hartman Kuhn shared two more connections. 

Hartman Kuhn had built himself a mansion at 1118 Chestnut Street, with a large garden in the rear. After his death in 1860, the house was rented as the first home of the Union League from 1863 to 1864, when the League built its Broad and Sansom Street edifice. Matthias Baldwin then bought the 1118 Chestnut Street mansion and lived there until his death in 1866. Matthias loved his gardening, and was a benefactor to the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS), which made him its president from 1858 to 1862.

The Kuhn-Baldwin mansion near the end of its life.
After the death of Matthias Baldwin, the building served as a home to several theaters before being demolished in 1900.
I couldn't resist adding this 1863 photograph of the Kuhn-Baldwin house.
In that year Democrat John Brodhead was running for City Treasurer against Republican Harry (Henry) Bumm. The campaign broadsides on the wall demonstrate the still-divided leanings of Philadelphians on the slavery issue, as discussed in the outside link here.
The long exposure time of 1863 photographic plates blurs the passerby in front left.
Portion of map from 1895 showing extensive open space behind the mansion at 1118 Chestnut Street. This space was used as a garden by Hartman Kuhn and briefly by Matthias Baldwin. During Baldwin's tenure, between the house and the Sunday School Union next door was a conservatory with tropical flowers and plants, including oranges and pineapples. The glass front was carefully kept free of fog so that the carefully arranged plants could be seen by passersby on the sidewalk.
11th Street runs north-south vertically down the middle of this map.
Portrait of Matthias Baldwin, the seventh president of PHS, serving from 1858 to 1862. The portrait is attributed to Rembrandt Peale, half-brother of Franklin Peale, who had given Baldwin his first locomotive order (see here). 
The portrait hangs in the PHS office at 20th and Arch Streets.

One last connection: the previously mentioned Cornelius Hartman Kuhn, son of Hartman Kuhn and a prominent banker, socialite, and philanthropist in Philadelphia, became the 19th president of PHS in 1914.

authored by Joe Walsh, July 2020

Matthias Baldwin Park 

423 N 19th St 

Philadelphia, PA 19130

Friends of Matthias Baldwin Park is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that works to preserve the Matthias Baldwin Park

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