Rodin Museum/ Knickerbocker Ice
In the 18th century, only the wealthy in the city could afford ice. This was usually acquired from local frozen rivers and stored in deep pits throughout the warmer months. Marketers of ice began appearing in the early 19th century, acquiring ice by chopping and sawing from the Schuylkill River above the Fairmount Dam.
The Knickerbocker Ice Company, a branch of the New York firm, was one of many ice harvesters in Philadelphia. It was the second largest ice supplier in the city, second only to Cold Spring Ice and Coal Company, incorporated with Thomas E. Cahill as president in 1854. In the 1860's the City condemned the ice houses along the Schuylkill River upstream of the Water Works, in order to establish Fairmount Park. Cahill led a movement to consolidate all the ice suppliers in the city by incorporating all under the Knickerbocker Ice Company, with himself as president. Ice houses in Maine were purchased by Knickerbocker in the 1880's due to several warm winters in Philadelphia. Cahill died in 1890, and the bulk of his estate provided for the construction of Roman Catholic High School at Broad and Vine Streets, the first free Catholic high school in the United States.
The availability of cheap ice made it possible to get fresh fruit and produce over a longer season, and meat processing could move out of the city. Prior to ice year round, meats would spoil quickly if not consumed, cured, pickled, or salted. Fresh beef required the slaughter of steer nearby, usually done on the banks of the Schuylkill River with disposal of carcasses therein. What goes great with a steak? Makers of lager beer, which requires cold temperature fermentation and storing, consumed 20 percent of all the ice harvested in Philadelphia. By 1880, 1,278 workers supplied the city with ice.
The Robert Morris ice house, discovered in 2000 during the excavation of the President's house at 6th and Market Streets.
This stone-lined pit was 13 feet across and 18 feet deep and could store tons of ice, enough to last from one winter to another, as described in this outside article here. It was covered over and now lies under the Liberty Bell Center.
In 1829 the horse drawn ice cutter was invented, dropping the price of ice by 70 percent. Ice harvesting became more industrialized.
A horse would repeatedly pull a frame of steel teeth over the river ice until the grooves were 4 inches deep, and then repeat the process at a 90 degree angle. Uniform large locks were then separated and stored.
First sketch is from the ten-page outside link here.
Hexamer insurance sketch of the Knickerbocker Ice Company plant in 1872, shortly after opening. Hamilton Street at that time crossed over the surface tracks on Pennsylvania Avenue. Shamokin Street is behind the buildings labeled with the number 2, most of which were stables and tool storage. The ice house is the yellow-roofed building at upper left
Another layout of the Hexamer survey from 1872. Ice could be loaded into and loaded out of the ice house directly onto the rail cars on Pennsylvania Avenue. The alleyway at the southern edge is Shamokin Street.
1890 photo looking southeast at the corner of Hamilton on the left and 22nd Street on the right.
There were several Knickerbocker facilities in Philadelphia.
As the city population and wealth grew, the demand for ice was met with machine-made ice. in 1889 there were five artificial ice plants in Pennsylvania, and over two hundred by 1919. Ice as a refrigerant was being replaced first by steam powered industrial manufacture of ice, and later, when electricity became more common, by household appliances called refrigerators.
As discussed briefly in the article on neighborhood locomotive pioneers here, Oliver Evans first drew up plans for a vapor-compression refrigerator in 1805. His idea would not become a reality until three decades later. The idea is very simple, based on the thermodynamics of phase changes you learned in high school. Heat will flow from an area of high temperature to an area of lower temperature. We can reverse this path by supplying energy to a heat pump. As a liquid passes into a gas (evaporation), heat is absorbed from the surroundings. When a gas changes into a liquid (condensation), heat is released into the surroundings. Outside the refrigerator cold compartment, a compressor does work to convert a gas into a liquid, releasing heat to the environment. This liquid under pressure is passed through a narrow valve into a low pressure coil where it changes into a gas and absorbs heat from inside the refrigerator. The compression and expansion cycles take heat from inside the refrigerator to outside.
This idea not only added a new appliance to kitchens, but the same principle allowed air conditioning and the mass settling of the southwest United States.
Compression of a gas to a liquid outside the refrigerator and then expansion of the liquid into a gas inside the refrigerator removes heat from inside and releases it outside. Before electricity became commonplace, steam engines powered the compressors used in industrial ice production.
Same idea on a larger scale: a bigger compressor powered by steam, and multiple rows of expansion coils. A 300 pound can of water will be placed between each pair of coils, turning the water into ice. See 1891 Popular Mechanics article here.
Knickerbocker Ice occupied most of the irregular block for close to 40 years. The southeast corner of the lot was used by auctioneers F. G. and C. J. Wolbert, then as a coal yard, then as an annex for Caledonia Mills.
Portion of a map from 1875 showing the Knickerbocker lot. The Wolbert brothers auctioneer firm occupies the eastern part of the lot.
View from around 20th Street looking west down the surface tracks on Pennsylvania Avenue in 1895.
Portion of map from 1901 showing annex of nearby Caledonia Carpet Mills in the southeast corner of the lot.
The parallel ghost lines trace the originally proposed path of the Parkway.
In 1908 the City paid $250,000 for taking Knickerbocker Ice Works for demolition in order to construct the Fairmount Parkway, which underwent a name change in 1937 to the Benjamin Franklin Parkway.
Movie theater magnate Jules Mastbaum, from 1923 until his death in 1926, collected Rodin sculptures with the intent of building a museum for the citizens of Philadelphia. This museum was completed in 1929.